U.S. Energy Policy 2009

The energy challenges our country faces are severe and have gone unaddressed for far too long. Our addiction to foreign oil doesn't just undermine our national security and wreak havoc on our environment -- it cripples our economy and strains the budgets of working families all across America. President Obama and Vice President Biden have a comprehensive plan to invest in alternative and renewable energy, end our addiction to foreign oil, address the global climate crisis and create millions of new jobs.

The Obama-Biden comprehensive New Energy for America plan will:

  • Help create five million new jobs by strategically investing $150 billion over the next ten years to catalyze private efforts to build a clean energy future.
  • Within 10 years save more oil than we currently import from the Middle East and Venezuela combined.
  • Put 1 million Plug-In Hybrid cars -- cars that can get up to 150 miles per gallon -- on the road by 2015, cars that we will work to make sure are built here in America.
  • Ensure 10 percent of our electricity comes from renewable sources by 2012, and 25 percent by 2025.
  • Implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050.

Energy Plan Overview

Provide Short-term Relief to American Families

  • Crack Down on Excessive Energy Speculation.
  • Swap Oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Cut Prices.

Eliminate Our Current Imports from the Middle East and Venezuela within 10 Years

  • Increase Fuel Economy Standards.
  • Get 1 Million Plug-In Hybrid Cars on the Road by 2015.
  • Create a New $7,000 Tax Credit for Purchasing Advanced Vehicles.
  • Establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard.
  • A "Use it or Lose It" Approach to Existing Oil and Gas Leases.
  • Promote the Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Natural Gas.

Create Millions of New Green Jobs

  • Ensure 10 percent of Our Electricity Comes from Renewable Sources by 2012, and 25 percent by 2025.
  • Deploy the Cheapest, Cleanest, Fastest Energy Source - Energy Efficiency.
  • Weatherize One Million Homes Annually.
  • Develop and Deploy Clean Coal Technology.
  • Prioritize the Construction of the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

Reduce our Greenhouse Gas Emissions 80 Percent by 2050

  • Implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050.
  • Make the U.S. a Leader on Climate Change.
Implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act)

Secretary Steven ChuThe passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act began a new era at the Department of Energy.

President Obama has set clear goals for this bill: creating or protecting 3.5 million jobs over the next two years, while lifting our country out of this economic crisis and reducing our dependence on foreign oil.  To achieve those aims, the Department of Energy has been given new resources and new responsibilities.

Each of the ten initiatives below will put Americans back to work and begin to transform the way we use energy.  We will reduce our carbon emissions and create entire new industries based on America's resources, America's ingenuity, and America's workers - and these will be jobs that can't be outsourced. 

The Department of Energy will carry out this economic recovery plan with the highest level of speed, transparency, and accountability.  I recently announced a sweeping reorganization of the way the Department awards grants and loans, so we can begin creating jobs as quickly and wisely as possible.  We will also be posting the Department's progress regularly on this website and at Recovery.gov, where you can monitor the efforts of other federal agencies as well.

Achieving the President's bold goals will take the hard work and collaboration of all of us - homeowners, scientists, local and state governments, small businesses, industry, and many others - but I am confident that, together, we will succeed.  We will turn this time of economic crisis into an opportunity to build a clean, secure, and prosperous energy future for America.

                                                                        Thank you,

                                                                        Steven Chu


TRANSFORM THE WAY AMERICANS USE ENERGY

1. Energy efficient homes and businesses: Funding provided through the states for homeowners and businesses to take immediate steps toward energy efficiency - reducing heating and air conditioning bills and creating jobs. $5 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Photo of two men sitting on exposed roof with insulation visable.Buildings use approximately 40 percent of energy consumed in the United States today, so increasing the efficiency of buildings is one of the most effective ways to lower energy consumption, save money, and reduce carbon emissions.   The recovery package includes funds to weatherize more than a million homes, beginning with a home energy audit to identify which measures - from adding insulation to sealing leaky windows, roofs, and doorways to upgrading furnaces and appliances - will have the greatest impact.  In addition to creating construction jobs in cities and towns across the country, weatherization saves homeowners money and makes their homes more livable. For businesses, the recovery funding will support construction of combined heat and power generation - creating jobs, while reducing energy use and costs.

In addition to funding these ready-to-go energy efficiency projects, the Department of Energy, in partnership with states, industry and manufacturers, will also put scientists, engineers and computer programmers to work developing better ways to build ever more efficient buildings and appliances.

Read more about DOE's energy efficiency and renewable energy programs.
Read more about home energy efficiency.
Read more about industrial energy efficiency.
Learn more about the DOE's research in building technologies.

Photo of the solar panels of the roof of DOE's Forrestal Building.2. Greening federal buildings: Provide funding to improve the efficiency of federal government offices and buildings, reducing energy bills and creating jobs. $4.5 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

The U.S. government is the largest energy consumer in the world, using approximately two percent of all energy consumed in the U.S. today.  As the Department of Energy invests in construction projects to make its own facilities more energy efficient, it will also provide guidance to the rest of the federal government on how to reduce energy costs and the environmental impact of federal buildings through the Federal Energy Management Program.  The projects will spur job creation and reduce the government's energy bill by 25 percent, while significantly lowering carbon emissions.

Read more about efforts to green federal buildings.


BUILD A CLEAN, EFFICIENT ENERGY SUPPLY

3. Renewable energy projects: Accelerate the construction of solar, wind, geothermal and other renewable energy generation facilities through a combination of loans and grants, creating jobs immediately and providing the United States with a clean energy supply for the future. $2.5 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Photo of a wind turbine with the sun setting behind it.The United States has tremendous potential to harness its natural renewable resources to increase the supply of clean electricity - from the windy plains of the Midwest, to the sunny deserts of the Southwest, to the subterranean geothermal resources of the West.  This set of initiatives will provide money to spur industry investment in shovel-ready projects that have been delayed due to the economic crisis, fund new projects to pilot emerging technologies, and support the scientists and engineers who will design the next generation of renewable energy technologies.


Learn more about the Department of Energy's solar energy program.
Learn more about the Department of Energy's wind and hydropower program.
Learn more about the Department of Energy's geothermal energy program.
Learn more about the Department of Energy's loan guarantees to support renewable energy.

4.  Smart Grid technology and transmission infrastructure: Build the transmission lines and grid technology infrastructure needed for a better, smarter grid to transport electricity - from the places renewable energy can be produced to the places it will be used. $4.5 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Photo with power lines in the foreground and wind turbines in the background.Investments in improving the grid - with more than 3,000 miles of new or modernized transmission lines - will create jobs immediately and lower the number of power outages,  increase reliability, and allow new renewable energy to come online.  Deploying "Smart Meters" in homes and buildings across the country will make the energy grid cleaner, more efficient and more reliable.  And the Department of Energy will invest in design and demonstration projects to improve on existing grid technologies.  The Department will also invest in job training for the next generation of transmission workers to learn the skills needed to build and maintain a more efficient, smarter grid.

Learn more about the Smart Grid.
Learn more about transmission projects in the northwest United States.
Learn more about transmission projects in the western and Midwest United States.

5. Clean fossil energy technology: Develop innovative technologies for clean coal, petroleum coke and other plants of the future, allowing our nation to safely use our abundant coal and fossil energy resources. $3.4 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Photo of the Tampa Electric Clean Coal Facility in Florida under construction.

Coal is a cheap and abundant energy resource for the United States, currently providing more than 50 percent of the nation's electricity supply.  This set of initiatives will focus on research, development and deployment of technologies to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.  Investments will go both toward finding and testing new ways to produce energy from coal, such as gasification, and improving techniques to clean or capture and store the emissions from coal-fired power plants. 


Learn more about the Department of Energy's clean coal initiatives.

Photo of a man standing next to a field of grass plants with wide stalks and fluffy seed heads, rising to at least the height of his shoulders.6. Next generation biofuels: Provide grants to accelerate the research and deployment of cellulosic biofuels technologies to provide a clean alternative to imported oil. $800 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Working with industry, the Department of Energy will put scientists and researchers to work finding new ways to convert plant materials -- such as corn stalks and husks, switchgrass, and woodchips -- into fuel that can power our cars and trucks.  Research investments will focus on innovations along the value chain - from addressing feedstock sustainability, to methods to break them down into basic chemical compounds and convert them into fuels.  By co-investing with industry to build new cellulosic biofuel refineries to test these new technologies, we will take important steps toward transitioning the American vehicle fleet to ever cleaner alternatives.

Learn more about the Department of Energy's biofuels programs.


REINVIGORATE THE ECONOMY WITH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

7.  Science and basic research in the energy technologies of the future: Investments in building and renovating laboratories and research facilities to create jobs immediately and enable the research that will sustain American industry and provide new energy and climate solutions. $1.6 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Photo of two scientist working the controls of a laser.Rebuilding facilities for basic science is vital for maintaining America's role as the world leader in innovation.  These construction projects will allow ongoing research into high energy and nuclear physics, basic chemical and materials science, nanotechnology, biological and environmental science, advanced computing, and other cutting-edge fields.  The key will be ensuring the discoveries made in Department of Energy labs find their way to the assembly line as more efficient production processes and into stores as new products offered by American companies.


Learn more about the scientific research supported by the Department of Energy.

Photo of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) being  tested with an emulated battery power source at Argonne National Laboratory.8.  Battery research and advanced vehicle technologies: Loans and grants to support the development of advanced vehicle batteries and battery systems to reinvigorate the U.S. auto industry, reduce the U.S. dependence on foreign oil, and transform the way automobiles are powered. $2 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Battery research is critical for achieving a clean, secure, and prosperous energy future.  Electric vehicles are currently a niche market, largely because today's batteries can't safely store enough energy to power cars over long distances.  At the same time, electric utilities are only able to use a certain level of renewable energy sources like solar and wind because they lack a large-scale energy storage solution.  The invention of new battery technologies has the potential not only to reshape the U.S. auto industry but to enable the wide-spread use of renewable energy to power America.

Learn more about advanced vehicle technologies at the Department of Energy.

Learn more about the Department of Energy's loan program for vehicle technologies.
Learn more about battery and energy storage programs at the Department of Energy.

9.   Advanced Research Project Agency-Energy (ARPA-E):  Jump start advanced energy technologies by funding high-risk, high-payoff research in collaboration with industry. $400 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Photo of a scientist in a clean suit holding silicon wafers with a tool.

Modeled on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which was founded at the beginning of the Cold War and developed the technologies that resulted in modern computer operating systems and the Internet, ARPA-E will support transformational energy technology research projects with the goal of enhancing the nation's economic and energy security.  By fostering an atmosphere of innovation, ARPA-E will provide a place for research into cutting edge technologies that are still too risky for private industry, creating the opportunity for revolutionary breakthroughs in energy technology.


Learn more about DARPA, the model for ARPA-E.


SAFELY MANAGE AND CONTAIN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

Photo of a  Forklift truck picking up the first in a line of 55-Gallon Drums.10.  Cleanup of nuclear legacy: Redouble the ongoing efforts to clean up radioactive waste from Cold War nuclear project sites, creating jobs and reclaiming lands for communities across the country. $6 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Spanning the country from South Carolina to Washington, the Department of Energy works to secure the nuclear materials and radioactive waste left from the construction of nuclear weapons during the Cold War.  These efforts include building and operating treatment facilities, safely moving and securing the remaining waste materials, and restoring the cleaned-up land.

Learn more about the efforts to clean up the nuclear legacy.

U.S. Energy Overview

Secretary of Energy  Steven Chu

Basic Petroleum Statistics (data for 2006 except where noted)

Gallons of Oil per Barrel
42
Barrels of Oil per Metric Ton (U.S.)
7.33
U.S. Crude Oil Production
5,102,000 barrels/day
State Ranking of Crude Oil Production Texas - 1,088,000 barrels/day
U.S. Crude Oil Imports 
10,118,000 barrels/day
U.S. Crude Oil Imports from OPEC
5,517,000 barrels/day
Top U.S. Crude Oil Supplier
Canada - 1,802,000 barrels/day
U.S. Petroleum Product Imports
3,589,000 barrels/day
U.S. Petroleum Product Imports from OPEC
733,000 barrels/day
U.S. Net Petroleum Imports
12,390,000 barrels/day
Top U.S. Total Petroleum Supplier
Canada - 2,353,000 barrels/day
Top Oil Producing Countries & Exporters

#1 - Saudi Arabia

Top Oil Consuming Countries & Importers

#1 - United States

U.S. Total Petroleum Exports
1,317,000 barrels/day
U.S. Petroleum Consumption
20,687,000 barrels/day
Dependence on Net Petroleum Imports 
59.9%
U.S. Motor Gasoline Consumption
9,253,000 barrels/day (388.6 million gallons/day)
Share of US Oil Consumption for Transportation
68%
Number of U.S. Operable Petroleum Refineries
149
U.S. Refiners Ranked Capacity (1/1/2006) #1 - Baytown, Texas (ExxonMobil) 562,500 barrels/day
Top U.S. Petroleum Refining States #1 - Texas 4,241,000 barrels/day
U.S. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil as of December 31, 2005
21,757 million barrels
Top U.S. Oil Fields(2005)
Prudhoe Bay, AK
Top U.S. Producing Companies(2005)
BP - 827,000 barrels/day
U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve
689 million barrels
Total World Oil Production (2005)
82,532,000 barrels/day
Total World Petroleum Consumption (2005)
83,607,000 barrels/day

Date Last Updated/Reviewed: July 2007 Next Update/Review: June 2008

Credit: Energy Information Agency Official Energy Statistics from The U.S. Government

 

Credit: Energy Information Agency Official Energy Statistics from The U.S. Government

 

 

United States Crude Oil Imports (Annual Thousand Barrels )

  2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
All Countries 4,476,501 4,811,104 5,005,541 5,003,082 4,915,957 4,711,238
Non OPEC* 2,592,417 2,724,642 2,966,253 2,989,479 2,733,350 2,530,488
OPEC* 1,884,084 2,086,462 2,039,288 2,013,603 2,182,607 2,180,750
Canada 756,354 782,598 796,219 858,839 895,976 899,935
Persian Gulf 912,749 912,447 851,855 807,172 789,607 868,516
Saudi Arabia 647,666 570,137 560,823 534,143 541,987 560,705
Mexico 592,466 609,225 606,751 622,408 559,304 475,545
Venezuela 502,328 568,944 558,157 517,947 496,684 435,769
Nigeria 316,522 417,152 425,440 406,662 413,932 362,263
Iraq 175,663 240,191 193,987 201,866 176,709 229,300
Algeria 139,333 165,346 174,652 239,959 244,605 200,192
Angola 135,559 115,708 172,609 195,048 185,352 187,761
Russia 92,711 109,151 149,681 134,646 151,074 169,415
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 104,981 120,860 119,544 119,607 126,129 117,191
Brazil 39,433 38,052 56,881 70,281 73,039 94,261
United Kingdom 160,520 139,223 144,674 99,330 101,181 85,415
Ecuador 52,752 89,640 103,153 101,457 74,179 80,714
Kuwait 80,208 91,540 88,729 67,355 66,185 76,988
Colombia 71,073 64,413 71,532 56,532 56,487 73,238
Netherlands 31,660 36,955 55,076 63,390 46,857 61,142
Chad 1,577 24,592 35,574 37,143 28,400 38,080
Libya   7,410 20,520 31,896 42,801 37,467
Norway 98,565 89,374 85,197 71,603 51,970 37,303
France 9,867 18,672 22,596 26,736 25,838 32,468
Belgium 29,936 33,377 27,941 27,107 30,902 31,472
Aruba     45,648 45,290 40,022 31,341
Equatorial Guinea 24,377 28,450 25,385 21,957 21,597 28,289
Azerbaijan   484 563 10,091 22,809 27,152
Congo (Brazzaville) 11,455 5,246 11,592 12,957 23,849 24,694
Trinidad and Tobago 35,809 32,116 41,056 42,870 36,365 23,268
Gabon 47,670 52,061 46,539 21,773 23,577 21,430
Italy 12,324 15,579 15,702 21,350 19,968 19,423
Germany 11,507 20,236 26,896 25,265 26,161 19,192
Korea, South 11,226 14,794 23,001 34,330 44,889 17,657
Argentina 38,898 35,536 37,065 19,800 23,510 17,595
Spain 8,679 8,965 10,067 17,507 19,401 16,370
Australia 12,523 10,029 5,213 2,774 1,389 12,880
Peru 5,730 6,672 12,924 13,737 12,427 12,172
Finland 6,557 7,193 5,306 6,296 9,064 11,885
Vietnam 9,209 9,256 11,400 15,545 11,156 10,628
Sweden 4,423 10,769 9,593 10,993 9,118 10,153
Indonesia 13,609 16,475 8,664 9,967 9,943 8,068
Oman 12,736 3,570 8,781 12,826 11,538 6,765
Belarus   2,520 1,262 4,526 7,060 6,630
China 9,869 8,138 11,940 10,059 4,892 5,628
Egypt 3,193 5,147 5,342 2,194 3,290 5,605
Guatemala 8,027 6,699 3,920 5,644 3,975 5,394
Cameroon 4,499 8,548 2,923 2,857 10,804 5,341
Thailand 1,031 563 955 3,737 5,993 5,148
Lithuania 5,561 6,327 7,923 7,641 3,800 4,891
Kazakhstan   4,492 7,583 4,141 6,881 4,466
Netherlands Antilles 25,415 10,641 10,663 11,706 3,185 3,732
Japan 2,757 3,873 3,981 9,748 12,927 3,421
Estonia 6,842 9,160 12,122 13,925 5,716 3,410
Ivory Coast 1,514 2,356 8,734 2,073 531 3,298
Tunisia 425 1,759 1,433 1,975 5,003 3,114
Portugal 5,526 6,100 3,430 8,545 9,220 2,989
Turkey 4,130 1,722 7,590 4,618 4,719 2,827
Malaysia 11,152 10,875 7,849 7,110 5,207 2,789
Ukraine   352 888 1,699 403 2,756
Bahamas 10,831 13,916 11,693 3,143 1,325 2,610
Jamaica   723 810 1,898 1,771 2,439
Latvia 10,443 11,445 8,835 7,860 3,851 2,347
Israel 233 795 1,956 1,812 944 2,313
Syria 4,600 3,584 4,410 2,965 1,402 2,303
China, Taiwan 2,545 5,822 7,534 4,075 7,420 2,125
India 7,138 4,291 10,332 4,402 10,449 2,040
Denmark 4,982 2,631 2,576 2,541 2,238 1,731
El Salvador   128 663 2,108 1,730 1,667
United Arab Emirates 7,731 7,264 6,722 3,148 3,828 1,474
Bolivia   311 528 699 1,157 1,239
Ireland 306 902 1,659   854 1,186
Greece 1,180 1,329 855 1,915 1,463 1,082
Mauritania       942 950 995
Costa Rica 283 491 753 910 1,056 957
Belize       232 250 952
Ghana 923 1,512 881 197 422 831
Turkmenistan 19 182 1,618 323 1,742 809
Singapore 2,461 3,268 5,228 6,275 4,293 649
Bulgaria 1,530 960 541 276 1,375 635
Cyprus       141   604
New Zealand           571
South Africa 408 83 322 2,044 2,637 511
Brunei 10,115 5,616 5,215 6,086 3,838 356
Panama         347 348
Morocco 678 2,985 621 545 705 321
Niue   78   151   313
Pakistan       600   307
Georgia, Republic of 1,322 19 722   669 92
Midway Islands     255 771 53 79
Malta 388 1,398 251     67
Senegal       9   65
Qatar 1,024 2,003 1,594 660 581 49
Romania 2,157 245 1,539 1,040 239 49
Uruguay   2,064 1,165 932 234 37
Poland 208 31 102 981 418 32
Hungary 5 6 4 129 11 22
Albania     529      
Austria            
Bahrain 457 1,312     317  
Barbados 326          
Benin            
Burma 302          
Chile 3,845 2,766 6,323 3,614 2,314  
Congo (Kinshasa) 698 5,101 688   473  
Cook Islands            
Croatia            
Guinea 479       107  
Hong Kong            
Kyrgyzstan            
Nambia       648    
Papua New Guinea 649          
Philippines     60   211  
Puerto Rico     74      
Slovakia       4    
Spatly Islands   650     43  
Swaziland 258          
Switzerland   288 8   3  
Togo            
Tonga   1,759        
Yemen 2,130 1,722 4,806 7,525 4,837  

 

Credit: Energy Information Agency Official Energy Statistics from The U.S. Government

 

 

U.S. Primary Energy Consumption
by Source and Sector, 2007

(quadrillion Btu)

 

 

Energy Consumption

 

 

 

 

 

Country % of Energy Consumed % of World Population

United States

25

4.6

China

9.9

21.2

Russia

7

2.5

Japan

5.8

2.1

Germany

3.9

1.3

India 

3.1 16.6
France 2.9 .9
U.K. 2.6 1
Canada 2.5 .5
Korea 1.9 .7

The 1970s oil shocks occurred when US oil imports were far lower than they are today. America now imports over half its oil compared with 34.8 percent in 1973. This level of dependence on imports (58%) is the highest in history, and will increase as The United States uses up domestic resources. The vast majority of the world's oil reserves are concentrated in the Middle East (65% to 75%), and controlled by the members of the OPEC oil cartel. The United States accounts for about 25 percent of global oil consumption but has only 3 percent of proven global oil reserves.

 

  • U.S. oil consumption has risen by 12 percent since 1973, the year of the Arab oil embargo.

  • U.S. oil consumption in the transportation sector (including motor vehicles, planes, and ships) has risen by 42 percent since 1973.

  • Between 1973 and the present, oil imports to the United States rose -- in absolute terms -- by two thirds.

  • Almost half of U.S. oil imports come from OPEC producers and a quarter comes from the unstable Persian Gulf region.

  • Crude oil production in the lower 48 states peaked in 1970 and has been declining since.

  • Crude oil production in Alaska's north slope peaked in 1988 and has since fallen by nearly 50 percent. (The time between the beginning and peaking in Alaskan production was a mere 10 years.)

United States Basic Data by Fuel

 

 

Credit: The Whitehouse, Energy Information Administration, The American Petroleum Institute



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